ScienceDaily: Technology - October 23, 2023
Top technology research news
Stimulating muscle fibers with magnets causes them to grow in the same direction, aligning muscle cells within tissue. The findings offer a simpler, less time-consuming way for medical researchers to program muscle cell alignment, which is strongly tied to healthy muscle function.
Researchers at Tampere University and the University of Eastern Finland have reached a milestone in a study where they derived a new kind of wave equation, which applies for accelerating waves. The novel formalism has turned out to be an unexpectedly fertile ground for examining wave mechanics, with direct connections between accelerating waves, general theory of relativity, as well as the arrow of time.
A huge step forward in the evolution of perovskite solar cells will have significant implications for renewable energy development.
Graphene is often referred to as a wonder material for its advantageous qualities. But its application in quantum computers, while promising, is stymied by the challenge of getting accurate measurements of quantum bit states with existing techniques. Now, researchers have developed design guidelines that enable radio-frequency reflectometry to achieve high-speed electrical readouts of graphene nanodevices.
NASA's James Webb Space Telescope has discovered a new, never-before-seen feature in Jupiter's atmosphere. The high-speed jet stream, which spans more than 3,000 miles (4,800 kilometers) wide, sits over Jupiter's equator above the main cloud decks. The discovery of this jet is giving insights into how the layers of Jupiter's famously turbulent atmosphere interact with each other, and how Webb is uniquely capable of tracking those features.
A new study reveals the pitfalls of deep generative models when they are tasked with solving engineering design problems. The researchers say if mechanical engineers want help from AI for novel ideas and designs, they'll have to refocus those models beyond 'statistical similarity.'
Increasingly used in medicine, AI raises both hopes and concerns. An international task force has laid out recommendations to ensure AI medical devices help patients and avoid worsening health inequity.
New perspective argues pursuing fair AI for healthcare requires cross-disciplinary collaboration to translate methods into real-world benefits.
A 2000-year-old practice by Chinese herbalists -- examining the human tongue for signs of disease -- is now being embraced by computer scientists using machine learning and artificial intelligence.
An international team has spotted a remote blast of cosmic radio waves lasting less than a millisecond. This 'fast radio burst' (FRB) is the most distant ever detected. Its source was pinned down by the European Southern Observatory's (ESO) Very Large Telescope (VLT) in a galaxy so far away that its light took eight billion years to reach us. The FRB is also one of the most energetic ever observed; in a tiny fraction of a second it released the equivalent of our Sun's total emission over 30 years.
Governments and companies emphasize the importance of protecting themselves from disruptions. Yet, they hesitate to share data with each other. But why should they embrace the idea of building a supply chain mapping alliance? There are several compelling reasons for this.
An international team of scientists has recently developed a novel type of nano engine made of DNA. It is driven by a clever mechanism and can perform pulsing movements. The researchers are now planning to fit it with a coupling and install it as a drive in complex nano machines.
Proteins are important molecules that perform a variety of functions essential to life. To function properly, many proteins must fold into specific structures. However, the way proteins fold into specific structures is still largely unknown. Researchers have developed a novel physical theory that can accurately predict how proteins fold. Their model can predict things previous models cannot. Improved knowledge of protein folding could offer huge benefits to medical research, as well as to various industrial processes.
A team of researchers has engineered an innovative magnetic wound-healing gel that promises to heal diabetic wounds three times faster, reduce the rates of recurrence, and in turn, lower the incidents of limb amputations. The innovative magnetic hydrogel, which contains skin cells for healing as well as magnetic particles, takes a comprehensive 'all-in-one' approach to wound healing, accelerating the process on several fronts. To maximize therapeutic results, a wireless external magnetic device is used to activate skin cells and accelerate the wound healing process.
Researchers have shown it's theoretically possible for black holes to exist in perfectly balanced pairs -- held in equilibrium by a cosmological force -- mimicking a single black hole.
The development of tumors begins with miniscule changes within the body's cells; ion diffusion at the smallest scales is decisive in the performance of batteries. Until now the resolution of conventional imaging methods has not been high enough to represent these processes in detail. A research team has now developed diamond quantum sensors which can be used to improve resolution in magnetic imaging.
Engineers have developed a recipe to make a certain class of ceramics tougher and more resistant to cracking. The newfound toughness of these ceramics paves the way for their use in extreme applications, such as spacecraft and other hypersonic vehicles.
High-capacity and reliable rechargeable batteries are a critical component of many devices and even modes of transport. They play a key role in the shift to a greener world. A wide variety of elements are used in their production, including cobalt, the production of which contributes to some environmental, economic, and social issues. A team now presents a viable alternative to cobalt which in some ways can outperform state-of-the-art battery chemistry. It also survives a large number of recharge cycles, and the underlying theory can be applied to other problems.
Researchers have proposed ways to use quasiparticles to create light sources as powerful as the most advanced ones in existence today, but much smaller.
New soft, implantable fibers can deliver light to major nerves through the body. They are an experimental tool for scientists to explore the causes and potential treatments for peripheral nerve disorders in animal models.
A new electrical method to conveniently change the direction of electron flow in some quantum materials could have implications for the development of next-generation electronic devices and quantum computers. A team of researchers has developed and demonstrated the method in materials that exhibit the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect -- a phenomenon in which the flow of electrons along the edge of a material does not lose energy.
A breakthrough development in photonic-electronic hardware could significantly boost processing power for AI and machine learning applications. The approach uses multiple radio frequencies to encode data, enabling multiple calculations to be carried out in parallel. The method shows promise for outperforming state-of-the-art electronic processors, with further enhancements possible.
Researchers have invented an experimental wearable device that generates power from a user's bending finger and can create and store memories, in a promising step towards health monitoring and other technologies.
As the wind and rain pound the blades of a wind turbine, researchers carefully monitor screens, hundreds of kilometers away analyzing if the blade's coatings can withstand the onslaught. While this was only a test in a lab, the researchers are working to improve the way structures such as turbines, helicopter propellers and even bridges are monitored for wear and tear from the weather.
Researchers have shown how the principles of rogue waves -- huge 30-meter waves that arise unexpectedly in the ocean -- can be applied on a nano scale, with dozens of applications from medicine to manufacturing.
Research testing new technology to more effectively locate polar bear dens across the Arctic is showing promising results. Researchers hope that improving detection tools to locate dens -- which are nearly invisible and buried under snow -- will help efforts to protect mother polar bears and their cubs.
Robotic prosthetic ankles that are controlled by nerve impulses allow amputees to move more 'naturally,' improving their stability, according to a new study.
Taking inspiration from music streaming services, a team of engineers has designed the simplest way for users to program their own exoskeleton assistance settings.
Particle accelerators are crucial tools in a wide variety of areas in industry, research and the medical sector. The space these machines require ranges from a few square meters to large research centers. Using lasers to accelerate electrons within a photonic nanostructure constitutes a microscopic alternative with the potential of generating significantly lower costs and making devices considerably less bulky. Until now, no substantial energy gains were demonstrated. In other words, it has not been shown that electrons really have increased in speed significantly. Two teams of laser physicists have just succeeded in demonstrating a nanophotonic electron accelerator.
A team has used Human Body Models to investigate accidents involving electric scooters and identified the most important factors for preventing serious injuries.
Attempts to break the diffraction limit with 'super lenses' have all hit the hurdle of extreme visual losses. Now physicists have shown a new pathway to achieve superlensing with minimal losses, breaking through the diffraction limit by a factor of nearly four times. The key to their success was to remove the super lens altogether.
A new study focuses on using computer algorithms to generate adaptations to molecules in compounds for existing and potential medications that can improve those molecules' ability to bind to the main protease, a protein-based enzyme that breaks down complex proteins, in SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19.
A research study tackled the critical issue of how city-scale building energy consumption in urban environments will evolve under the influence of climate change.
Engineers have developed an experimental vaccine that could prevent the spread of metastatic cancers to the lungs. Its success lies in targeting a protein known to play a central role in cancer growth and spread, rather than targeting the primary tumor itself.
Holograms have long held the promise of offering immersive three-dimensional (3D) experiences, but the challenges involved in generating them have limited their widespread use. Capitalizing on the recent developments in deep learning, researchers now propose a game-changing approach that utilizes neural networks to transform ordinary two-dimensional color images into 3D holograms. The proposed approach can simplify 3D hologram generation and can find applications in numerous fields, including healthcare and entertainment.
Artificial intelligence has exploded in popularity and is being harnessed by some scientists to predict which molecules could treat illnesses, or to quickly screen existing medicines for new applications. Researchers have used one such deep learning algorithm, and found that dihydroartemisinin (DHA), an antimalarial drug and derivative of a traditional Chinese medicine, could treat osteoporosis as well. The team showed that in mice, DHA effectively reversed osteoporosis-related bone loss.
A research team has succeeded in developing a non-flammable gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) that is set to revolutionize the safety of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) by mitigating the risks of thermal runaway and fire incidents.
Investigators found that an artificial intelligence (AI) algorithm can detect an abnormal heart rhythm in people not yet showing symptoms. The algorithm, which identified hidden signals in common medical diagnostic testing, may help doctors better prevent strokes and other cardiovascular complications in people with atrial fibrillation -- the most common type of heart rhythm disorder.
Colder is not always better for energy-hungry data centers, especially when it comes to their power bills. A new analysis says that keeping the centers at 41°C, or around 105°F, could save up to 56% in cooling costs worldwide. The study proposes new temperature guidelines that may help develop and manage more efficient data centers and IT servers in the future.
Power grids -- the web of electrical networks that sprawl across countries and continents -- are under stress. Extreme weather events and volatile energy demands often push the system to the brink. Although these high-impact events can be very damaging, often overlooked is the impact of minor disruptions that trigger a domino effect throughout the system, according to a study analyzing European power blackouts. The findings showed that recovering power within 13 hours can reduce up to 52% of the power loss stemming from cascading events.
When stacked in five layers in a rhombohedral pattern, graphene takes on a rare 'multiferroic' state, exhibiting both unconventional magnetism and an exotic electronic behavior known as ferro-valleytricity.
The changing information technology industry, latest artificial intelligence applications, high demand for IT professionals, and evolving need for learning are leading to the search for innovations in education that will allow current and future employees to acquire knowledge in a contemporary and accessible way. This is particularly relevant in the field of programming, where the complexity of the process often creates learning difficulties. Researchers are now proposing to gamify this process.
Physicists have used a small glass bulb containing an atomic vapor to demonstrate a new form of antenna for radio waves. The bulb was 'wired up' with laser beams and could therefore be placed far from any receiver electronics.
Research shows start-up founders have distinct personality traits, and they're more important to the success of their companies than previously thought.
Using a small bird's nest-making process as a model, researchers have developed a nontoxic process for making cellulose gels.
Researchers have developed a human in vitro model that closely mimics the complexities of radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) and radiation dose sensitivity of the human lung. Using a previously developed microfluidic human Lung Alveolus Chip lined by human lung alveolar epithelial cells interfaced with lung capillary cells to recreate the alveolar-capillary interface in vitro, the researchers recapitulated many of the hallmarks of RILI, including radiation-induced DNA damage in lung tissue, cell-specific changes in gene expression, inflammation, and injury to both the lung epithelial cells and blood vessel-lining endothelial cells. By also evaluating the potential of two drugs to suppress the effects of acute RILI, the researchers demonstrated their model's capabilities as an advanced, human-relevant, preclinical, drug discovery platform.
One of the biggest challenges for earthquake early warning systems (EEW) is the lack of seismic stations located offshore of heavily populated coastlines, where some of the world's most seismically active regions are located. In a new study, researchers show how unused telecommunications fiber optic cable can be transformed for offshore EEW.
Researchers are now presenting a new and efficient way to recycle metals from spent electric car batteries. The method allows recovery of 100 per cent of the aluminum and 98 per cent of the lithium in electric car batteries. At the same time, the loss of valuable raw materials such as nickel, cobalt and manganese is minimized. No expensive or harmful chemicals are required in the process because the researchers use oxalic acid -- an organic acid that can be found in the plant kingdom.
The DNA double helix is composed of two DNA molecules whose sequences are complementary to each other. The stability of the duplex can be fine-tuned in the lab by controlling the amount and location of imperfect complementary sequences. Fluorescent markers bound to one of the matching DNA strands make the duplex visible, and fluorescence intensity increases with increasing duplex stability. Now, researchers have succeeded in creating fluorescent duplexes that can generate any of 16 million colors -- a work that surpasses the previous 256 colors limitation. This very large palette can be used to 'paint' with DNA and to accurately reproduce any digital image on a miniature 2D surface with 24-bit color depth.
Scientists have announced the results of an unprecedented collaboration to search for the source of the largest ever seismic event recorded on Mars. The study rules out a meteorite impact, suggesting instead that the quake was the result of enormous tectonic forces within Mars' crust.
The world may have crossed a 'tipping point' that will inevitably make solar power our main source of energy, new research suggests.
As Halloween approaches, so too does the anticipation of a trick-or-treating stash filled with fun-sized chocolate candy bars. But to satisfy our collective craving for this indulgence, millions of cocoa pods are harvested annually. While the beans and pulp go to make chocolate, their husks are thrown away. Now, researchers show that cocoa pod husks could be a useful starting material for flame retardants.
A rapid, high-heat electrothermal soil remediation process flushes out both organic pollutants and heavy metals in seconds without damaging soil fertility.
Researchers tested a molecular energy harvesting device that captures the energy from the natural motion of molecules in a liquid. Their work showed molecular motion can be used to generate a stable electric current. To create the device, they submerged nanoarrays of piezoelectric material in liquid, allowing the movement of the liquid to move the strands like seaweed waving in the ocean, except in this case the movement is on the molecular scale, and the strands are made of zinc oxide. When the zinc oxide material waves, bends, or deforms under motion, it generates electric potential.
Climate change and the rapid increase in frequency of extreme weather events around the globe reinforces the reality that these events are interconnected. Researchers now describe a climate network analysis method to explore the intensity, distribution, and evolution of this interlinked climate behavior, or teleconnections. The analysis combines the directions and distribution patterns of teleconnections to evaluate their intensity and to identify sensitive regions using global daily surface air temperature data. The method relies on advanced data processing and mathematical algorithms to find meaningful insights.
Animal sounds are a very good indicator of biodiversity in tropical reforestation areas. Researchers demonstrate this by using sound recordings and AI models.
A new method uses a hydrogel -- a polymer network that holds its shape and can expand when it takes in a large amount of water -- to retain 'high-affinity,' or well-fitting, aptamers while the rest of the aptamer candidates leave the gel in 60 hours.
Nanozymes are synthetic materials that mimic the properties of natural enzymes for applications in biomedicine and chemical engineering. They are generally considered too toxic and expensive for use in agriculture and food science. Now, researchers have developed a nanozyme that is organic, non-toxic, environmentally friendly, and cost effective.
A new study lets patients practice letting go of treasured objects in simulations of their own homes.